Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: Our new evolution simulator reveals that extinction often happens when conditions change quickly. Check it out here: Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Extinction: The moment when the last individual of a particular species dies. Interspecific Competition: When individuals of different species compete for the same resources or habitats. Thylacine: The so-called Tasmanian Tiger, it is one of the largest predatory marsupials; the last known individual was captured in 1933. Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm. Holocene Extinction: The so-called sixth mass extinction, mostly involving larger animals, that started at the end of the last Ice Age, mostly due to human activity. Extinction rates during this time are 100-1000 times higher than usual. Anagenesis: The gradual evolution of a species over time. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: Say hello on Facebook: And Twitter: And download our videos on itunes: ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: David Goldenberg Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman and Jasper Palfree Video Director: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida and Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: Audio Effect: Scratch Speed by user Racoonanimator ___________________________________________ References: Cahill, A., Aiello-Lammens, M., M. Caitlin Fisher-Reid, Xia Hua, Caitlin J. Karanewsky, Hae Yeong Ryu, Gena C. Sbeglia, Fabrizio Spagnolo, John B. Waldron, Omar Warsi and John J. Wiens (2013). How does climate change cause extinction? Proceedings of the Royal Society. 280 (1750). Retrieved from: Marcel Cardillo, Georgina M. Mace, Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Wes Sechrest, C. David L. Orme, Andy Purvis (2005). Multiple Causes of High Extinction Risk in Large Mammal Species. Science. 309(5738). Retrieved from: Craig Loehle, Willis Eschenbach (2011). Historical bird and terrestrial mammal extinction rates and causes. Diversity and Distributions, 18(1), 84-91. Retrieved from: Johnson, CN, Wroe, S. (2003). Causes of Extinction of Vertebrates during the Holocene of Mainland Australia: Arrival of the Dingo, or Human Impact?. The Holocene. 13 (6): 941–948. Retrieved from: Seth M. Rudman, Dolph Schluter. (2016).Ecological Impacts of Reverse Speciation in Threespine Stickleback. Current Biology, 26(4), 490-495. Retrieved from: