Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10. Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320. Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. http://arb.umn.edu/horticultural-research-center/fruit-breeding Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. https://doi.org/10.20900/cbgg20190005 Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.