Monarch butterflies are still in the middle of their story – and it’s one that is precarious. Humans are still trying to figure out a lot about them, and aspects of the monarch story have been misrepresented over the years.


  • Monarch Joint Venture:
  • “Monarch Butterfly.” The National Wildlife Federation.
  • Sutherland, Douglas W.S. and Jean Adams, ed. “The Monarch Butterfly – Our National Insect.” Part of “Insect Potpourri: Adventures in Entomology.” CRC Press. 1992.
  • Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Danaus". Encyclopedia Britannica, 15 Feb. 2018,
  • Kathleen S. Murphy. “Collecting Slave Traders: James Petiver, Natural History, and the British Slave Trade.” The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 70, no. 4, 2013, pp. 637–70. JSTOR,
  • Müller-Wille, Staffan. "Carolus Linnaeus". Encyclopedia Britannica, 19 May. 2022,
  • Stearns, Raymond Phineas. “James Petiver: Promoter of Natural Science, c.1663-1718.” American Antiquarian Society. October 1952.
  • “Mark Catesby (1683 – 1749).” Catesby Commemorative Trust. 2012.
  • Smith-Rogers, Sheryl. “Maiden of the Monarchs.” TEXAS PARKS & WILDLIFE. March 2016.
  • Scott, Alec. “Where do you go, my lovelies?” University of Toronto Magazine. Aug. 24, 2015.
  • Hannibal, Mary Ellen. “How you can help save the monarch butterfly -- and the planet.” TEDTalk. April 28, 2020.
  • Jarvis CE, Oswald PH. The collecting activities of James Cuninghame FRS on the voyage of Tuscan to China (Amoy) between 1697 and 1699. Notes Rec R Soc Lond. 2015 Jun 20;69(2):135–53. doi: 10.1098/rsnr.2014.0043.
  • “The US Endangered Species Act.” World Wildlife Federation.,a%20species%20should%20be%20protected.
  • Associated Press. “Beloved monarch butterflies are now listed as endangered.” WBEZ Chicago. July 23, 2022.
  • Garland, Mark S., and Andrew K. Davis. “An Examination of Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Autumn Migration in Coastal Virginia.” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 147, no. 1, 2002, pp. 170–74. JSTOR,
  • “Natural History – Monarch Butterfly.” Center for Biological Diversity.
  • Catesby, Mark. “A Monarch butterfly, with orchids.” C. 1722-6. Royal Collection Trust.
  • Daly, Natasha. “Monarch butterflies are now an endangered species.” July 21, 2022. National Geographic.
  • Walker, A., Oberhauser, K.S., Pelton, E.M., Pleasants, J.M. & Thogmartin, W.E. 2022. Danaus plexippus ssp. plexippus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T194052138A200522253.
  • Price, Michael. “Monarch miscalculation: Has a scientific error about the butterflies persisted for more than 40 years?” Science. Feb. 24, 2007.
  • Jiang, Kevin. “Study sheds light on evolutionary origins and the genes central to migration.” UChicago News. Oct. 6, 2014.
  • Borkin, Susan Sullivan. “Notes on Shifting Distribution Patterns and Survival of Immature Danaus Plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) on the Food Plant Asclepias Syriaca.” The Great Lakes Entymologist. Vol. 15, No. 3. Fall 1982.
  • Cudmore, Rebecca. “SNAPSHOT: Monarchs with big, bright wings arrive in Mexico first.” ScienceLine. June 16, 2014.
  • Brower, Lincoln P. “UNDERSTANDING AND MISUNDERSTANDING THE MIGRAnON OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY (NYMPHALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: 1857-1995.” Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. Vol. 49, No. 4, 1995.

See for privacy information.